Visão de Túndalo

Number

pt.016

Title

Visão de Túndalo

Visão de Túngulo

Visão de Túngalo

Do cavaleiro Tungullo

Estoria dhuun caualeyro a que chamauan tungulu

Original Latin source

Visio Tungdali

Visio Tnugdali

Visio Tundali (lt.016)

Textual localization  

The extant Portuguese witnesses are recorded in two manuscripts:

- copy 1: it belongs to a manuscript with about twenty different texts entitled Colecção Mystica de Fr. Hylario da Lourinhãa, Monge Cisterciense de Alcobaça, o qual transcreveo o seguinte no idioma Portuguez (Códice Alcobacense 266 - ALC. 462), lying between folios 124r and 137r .

- copy 2: it belongs to a manuscript – the Códice Alcobacense CCXLIV (ALC. 211) – where it can be found between folios 90v and 104v.

Language

Old Portuguese

Translator

 

Witness 1: At the beginning of the Códice Alcobacense 266 it is stated that the translator of the texts  was Frei Hilário (of which almost nothing is known, except that he came from Lourinhã and was a monk at the Monastery of Alcobaça - Castro et alii, 1982-83: 5), but this information does not seem reliable.  In fact, although paleographically the manuscript is dated to the fifteenth century, some of its texts have an older language and there are signs of at least three different scribes. According to Castro et alii (1982/83: 6), it is possible that the three have worked in the scriptorium of Alcobaça during the time D. Estêvão de Aguiar was the abbot of the Monastery (between 1431 and 1446) and that Frei Hilário had the responsibility to compile the texts and copy or translate some.


Witness 2: According the information on Códice Alcobacense CCXLIV (ALC. 211), it was translated by Frei Zacharias de Payopélle (Pereira, 1895: 100).

Translation’s contextualization  

Witness 1 belongs to the Códice Alcobacense 266, a manuscript from the fifteenth century, is a collection of lives of saints known by its eighteenth century title: Colecção Mystica de Fr. Hylario da Lourinhãa, Monge Cisterciense de Alcobaça, o qual transcreveo o seguinte no idioma Portuguez.

Witness 2 belongs to the Códice Alcobacense 244, a compilations of texts that also includes the Catecismo da Doutrina Cristã, the Virgeu de Consolaçom and the Tractado das meditações e pensamentos de Sã Bernardo.

These two Portuguese witnesses are from the late fourteenth century or early fifteenth and seem be translations from different texts because they present several differences.

Date

The dating of the Códice Alcobacense 266 is controversial, because there are significant differences in terms of the dates for which the researchers point out. Recent studies indicate that the dating of the codex is between 1431 and 1446. This does not mean, however, that this specific text has been produced at that time, although some researchers argue that the codex was the result of a unitary project and that, therefore, all texts were produced on the same period (see Sobral 1993: 673).

According to Pereira (1895: 99), the Códice Alcobacense 244 appears to be from the fifteenth century.

Place  

Both witnesses have been translated/copied probably in the scriptorium of the Monastery of Alcobaça, where the manuscripts where they are inserted were made.

Changes to the original work

 

The two Portuguese translations have several differences, on the structural and content level. According to Nunes (1903-1905: 240), the códice alcobacence 244 contains details that are not present on the códice alcobacence 266, such as the kings that the rider encountered in Paradise, the year in which Túndalo had his vision and the name of the translator. On the other side, the códice alcobacence 266 ends with a description of the glorious bodies.

We are unable to verify the existence of textual interferences from other sources, since the Latin sources which formed the basis for the translations are unknown.

List of manuscript witnesses

 

Of the approximately 250 remaining witnesses, two are in Portugal (they are dated from the late fourteenth century or the early fifteenth century).

Witness 1 it is part of the manuscript with the reference ALC. 462 that comes from the Monastery of Alcobaça (Códice Alcobacense 266) and today belongs to the National Library of Portugal. There is a microfilm of the manuscript at the Torre do Tombo (Mf 185), its previous owner.

Witness 2 it is part of the códice alcobacense 244 (211), that today belongs to the National Library of Portugal.

List of old editions

In Portuguese, there are no old editions from this text.

Witnesses’ contextualization 

According to Leon Acosta (1993: 684), the Portuguese witnesses were probably written on a late period, because they present several differences from the traditional legend. They also appear to be translations of different texts.

Witness 1: According to Nunes (1903-1905: 246), some terms used are typical of the southern country, and the letter is identical to the one in the ‘Lenda de Barlaão e Josafate’ (in the same codex). This allows us to think that the author of the text would be from the south of Portugal.

Witness 2: the text from códice alcobacense 244 (211) is more detailed  and, according to its language, it is probably the most ancient witness (Nunes, 1903-1905: 240.

Other data

Witness 1: text in Códice Alcobacense 266, now in the National Library of Portugal (ALC. 462). The manuscript is on parchment and it is written in Gothic characters from the late fourteenth century or beginning of the fifteenth century in a single column of 30 lines. The initials are colored and decorated with filigree. The leaves have the size of 263 × 180 mm. The previous owners were Torre do Tombo and the Monastery of Alcobaça.

Witness 2: text in Códice Alcobacense 244. The manuscript is on parchment and it is written in Gothic characters of the fifteenth century. It has 104 sheets (size of 270 x 210 mm), with a single column (Pereira, 1895: 99-100).

Editions

 


Witness 1 – Códice alcobacense 266:

NUNES, J. J. (1903-1905), Textos antiguos portugueses. I: A visão de Tundalo ou o cavalleiro Tungullo, Revista Lusitana 8, 239-262.

CASTRO, Ivo, Ana Maria Martins, Luiz Fagundes Duarte, José Manuel Feio e Patrícia Villaverde Gonçalves (1982-1983). Vidas de santos de um manuscrito alcobacense: Vida de Tarsis, Vida de uma monja, Vida de santa Pelágia, Morte de são Jerónimo, Visão de Túndalo. Revista Lusitana, n. s., 4, 5-52 (sobre este testemunho: 38-52).

Online text:

Corpus Informatizado do Português Medieval: Vidas de Santos de um Manuscrito Alcobacense - Séc. XIII/XIV, VS5

 

Witness 2 – Códice alcobacense 244:

PEREIRA, F. M. Esteves (1895), Visão de Tundalo, Revista Lusitana 3, 97-120.

Studies

Online databases:

Philobiblon - BITAGAP:

Texid 1067; Manid 1143;CNum 1079; Manid 1103; CNum 1090

 

Arlima:  

http://www.arlima.net/no/80, http://www.arlima.net/no/83

 

References:

CARVALHO, Maria Teresa Reis de (1998), "Viagantes do Além", Studia Lusitanica 1, 11-45.

CEPEDA, Isabel Vilares (1995), Bibliografia da Prosa Medieval em Língua Portuguesa. Lisboa: Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro, 236-237.

COSTA, Sara Figueiredo (2003), "A construção dos tempos do ‘passado' em alguns textos do século XV - Sete Vidas de Santos do Códice Alconbacense 266". In MENDES, Amália e FREITAS, Tiago (dir.), Actas do XVIII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística, 267-73.

DEUS, P. R. S. (2004), Paraísos medievais - esboço para uma tipologia dos lugares de recompensa dos justos no final da Idade Média. Revista Mirabilia. Revista Eletrônica de História Antiga e Medieval 4, 141-158.

GARDINER, E. (1993), Medieval Visions of Heaven and Hell. A Sourcebook. New York: Garland.

GÓMEZ REDONDO, F. (2002), Visión de don Túngano. In ALVAR, Carlos e LUCÍA MEGÍAS,
José Manuel (dir.), Diccionario filológico de literatura medieval española. Textos y transmisión.
Madrid: Editorial Castalia, 1030-1031.

LEÓN ACOSTA,J. (1993), "Visão de Túndalo". In LANCIANI, Giulia e TAVANI, Giuseppe (dir.), Dicionário da Literatura Medieval Galega e Portuguesa. Lisboa: Caminho, 683-684.

LEWIS, H. A. (1997), The Vision of the Knight Tungano in the Literatures of the Iberian Peninsula, Speculum 72, 85-99.

LUCAS, M. C. A. (2001), Literatura visionária. In CASTRO, F. L., História da Literatura Portuguesa. Vol. I. Lisboa: Publicações Alfa, 298-302.

MARTINS, M. (1956), Romances hagiográficos. In Estudos de Literatura Medieval. Braga: Livraria Cruz, 11-33.

MARTINS, M. (1977), "A 'Visão de Tundalo' no 'Breve Sumário da História de Deus'", Didaskalia 7, 201-208.

MOURÃO, J. A. M. (1988), A Visão de Túndalo; da fornalha de ferro à Cidade de Deus (Em torno da semiótica das Visões). Lisboa: Instituto Nacional de Investigação Científica.

MOURÃO, J. A. M. (2002), A carne do imaginário - Ironias do aquém e do além. Comunicação e Sociedade 4, 81-95.

SOBRAL, Cristina M. M. (1993), Vida de Santa Maria Egipcíaca. In LANCIANI, Giulia e TAVANI, Giuseppe (dir.), Dicionário da Literatura Medieval Galega e Portuguesa. Lisboa: Caminho, 672-674.

ZIERER, Adriana (2002). Paraíso versus Inferno: a Visão de Túndalo e a Viagem Medieval em Busca da Salvação da Alma (séc. XII), Revista Mirabilia. Revista Eletrônica de História Antiga e Medieval 2, 149-184.

ZIERER, Adriana Zierer (2004), Literatura e história medieval através da Visão de Túndalo (Século XII). In Anais do II Encontro Estadual de História, In http://www.outrostempos.uema.br/curso/anaisampuh/anaisadriana.htm.

ZIERER, Adriana Zierer (2004), Literatura e Imaginário: fontes literárias e concepções acerca do Além Medieval nos séculos XII e XIII, Outros Tempos 1, 21-39.

ZIERER, Adriana Zierer (2010), "Oralidade, Ensino e Imagens na Visão de Túndalo", Domínios da Imagem 6, 7-22.

ZIERER, Adriana Zierer (2011), "Impressões sensoriais, oralidade e ensina na Visão de Túndalo". In Bovo, Cláudia Regina et alii (dir.) Anais Eletrônicos do IX Encontro Internacional de Estudos Medievais. Cuiabá: Associação Brasileira de Estudos Medievais, 115-124.

Notes