Vida de Santa Maria Egipcíaca

Number

pt.013

Title

Vida de Santa Maria Egipcíaca

Uida de Sancta Maria egipcia

Original Latin source

Vita de S. Maria Aegyptiaca

Textual localization  

There are two copies with the translation:

- copy 1: Manuscript with about twenty different texts entitled Colecção Mystica de Fr. Hylario da Lourinhãa, Monge Cisterciense de Alcobaça, o qual transcreveo o seguinte no idioma Portuguez (Códice Alcobacense 266).

- copy 2: manuscript with about 12 texts name 'Ascetic Treaties' (Códice Alcobacense 270).

Language

Old Portuguese

Translator

 

Witness 1: At the beginning of the Códice Alcobacense 266 it is stated that the translator of the texts  was Frei Hilário (of which almost nothing is known, except that he came from Lourinhã and was a monk at the Monastery of Alcobaça - Castro et alii, 1982-83: 5), but this information does not seem reliable.  In fact, although paleographically the manuscript is dated to the fifteenth century, some of its texts have an older language and there are signs of at least three different scribes. According to Castro et alii (1982/83: 6), it is possible that the three have worked in the scriptorium of Alcobaça during the time D. Estêvão de Aguiar was the abbot of the Monastery (between 1431 and 1446) and that Frei Hilário had the responsibility to compile the texts and copy or translate some. As this specific text is a copy of a previous translation, it has been copied and not translated into this manuscript.

Witness 2: It is possible that the scribe was Frei Elói de Ferreira, probably the monk referred by Barbosa Machado in his Bibliotheca lusitana historica, critica, e cronológica (Vol. I, page 749). About this monk, we only know he was born in Ferreira do Alentejo and was a monk at the Monastery of Alcobaça. There, he wrote texts like Exercícios espirituaes’ and ‘Vida de Santa Maria Egypcíaca, e outros Santos’.

Translation’s contextualization  

Witness 1 belongs to the Códice Alcobacense 266, a manuscript from the fifteenth century that is a collection of lives of saints known by its eighteenth century title: Colecção Mystica de Fr. Hylario da Lourinhãa, Monge Cisterciense de Alcobaça, o qual transcreveo o seguinte no idioma Portuguez. With regard to the Life of St. Mary of Egypt, Sobral (1993: 672-673) considers this text is a copy a version from the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries that translated a Latin text.

The witness 2 belongs to the Códice Alcobacense 270, a manuscript of the fifteenth century that is a collection of lives of saints and other treaties which became known as ‘Tratados Ascéticos’. Originally, this collection had 12 texts, but today it only has only 11 (the first text, ‘Doze Mandamentos’ de Atanásio’, and part of the second, entitled ‘Livro de Isaac’, are missing). The text connected with Life of St. Mary of Egypt  is dated from the same period.

Date

The dating of the Códice Alcobacense 266 is controversial, because there are significant differences in terms of the dates for which the researchers point out. Recent studies indicate that the dating of the codex is between 1431 and 1446. This does not mean, however, that this specific text has been produced at that time, although some researchers argue that the codex was the result of a unitary project and that, therefore, all texts were produced on the same period (see Sobral 1993: 673). In fact, with regard to this text, it is a copy of a Portuguese version produced at the end of the thirteenth century or the beginning of the fourteenth. This means it was produced after this period, but the actual date is has not been defined.

In what concerns the Códice Alcobacense 270, most researchers located the codex in the late fifteenth century, although some point to the fourteenth century. The text will also have been produced by that time, because it was written on paper, which started to be used in Alcobaça in this period (Sobral, 1993: 673; Cambraia, 2007: 178-179).

Place  

Both witnesses have been translated/copied probably in the scriptorium of the Monastery of Alcobaça, where the manuscripts where they are inserted were made.

Changes to the original work

 

Hagiographic text that recounts the meeting between the monk Zosimus and a promiscuous woman, Mary of Egypt, by the time she was a hermit and tells him his story of debauchery, her conversion and her life in the desert. The two Portuguese witnesses, although very similar, have differences and show some innovations made by the translators / copyists.

The studies support the conclusion that there is a missing Portuguese translation of the Latin text from which emerged two copies - the witnesses 1 and 2. However, while witness 1 was based only on this translation, witness 2 was also based in an existing Latin version from the códice alcobacense 454. It is thus a text with some differences from the witness 1: it is more faithful to the Latin text and features some innovations, linked to the oratory speech, for example (Sobral, 1993: 673).

List of manuscript witnesses

 

There are two witnesses of the text, in the National Library of Portugal.

Witness 1 is inserted between folios 1r and 42r of the manuscript with the reference ALC. 462 that comes from the Monastery of Alcobaça (Códice Alcobacense 266). There is a microfilm of the manuscript at the Torre do Tombo (Mf 185), its previous owner.

Witness 2 is inserted between folios 116r and 133v of the manuscript with the reference ALC. 461 that comes from the Monastery of Alcobaça (Códice Alcobacense 270). There is a microfilm of the manuscript at the Torre do Tombo (Mf. 366 cota antiga: Alc. 270; nova cota: Manuscritos da Livraria, nº 771, Casa Forte), its previous owner.

List of old editions

There is a reduced version of the story in the Portuguese translation of Flos Sanctorum of 1513, existing in the National Library of Portugal.

 

There are also two paraphrases in verse:

- one from Sá Miranda, published by Teófilo Braga:, Teófilo (1913), A Egipciaca Santa Maria. Porto: Livraria Chardron.

- other from Leonel da Costa: Conversão miraculosa da felice egypciaca penitente Santa Maria sua vida, e morte, em Lisboa, por Giraldo da Vinha, em 1627 (vide Machado (1741), vol. III, page 9).

Witnesses’ contextualization 

According to Nunes (1917: 183) and Sobral (1993: 672), it is likely that the archetype from which the two witnesses descended is a copy of a Latin translation of the ninth century made at the request of Charles the Bald, by Paul Deacon of Naples. This archetype is lost but was translated into Portuguese maybe in the thirteenth Century. We know two texts:

 - The Latin version we find in Códice Alcobacense 454 in the National Library of Portugal. It introduces some changes towards its model, since it is smaller than the original;
- A Portuguese translation of the thirteenth  or fourteenth centuries. It had some innovations and stylistic effects that didn’t appear on the original model. This translation is missing but we have two Portuguese extant copies of it:

-    Witness 1: a text in Códice Alcobacense 266, now in the National Library of Portugal (ALC. 462).

-    Witness 2: a copy of the second half of the fifteenth century in Códice Alcobacense 270, also in the National Library of Portugal (ALC. 461). In this text, the copyist seeks to correct the translation using the Latin version of the text that Alcobaça had (códice alcobacense 454). He then created a new text, similar to the copy of the Códice Alcobacense 266, but more faithful to the Latin text (and with some innovations).

Other data

Witness 1: text in Códice Alcobacense 266, now in the National Library of Portugal (ALC. 462). The manuscript is on parchment and it is written in Gothic characters from the late fourteenth century or beginning of the fifteenth century in a single column of 30 lines. The initials are colored and decorated with filigree. The leaves have the size of 263 × 180 mm. The previous owners were Torre do Tombo and the Monastery of Alcobaça.

Witness 2: text of the second half of the fifteenth century in Códice Alcobacense 270, also in the National Library of Portugal (ALC. 461). The manuscript consists of 151 folios (only 148 are known) on parchment (58 folios) and paper (90 folios) with the size of 208 x 135 mm. There are no ornamentations. It was written in Gothic cursive black letter probably by two hands (Cambraia, 2001: 8-9) and it is considered a copy of the late fifteenth century. The previous owners were Torre do Tombo and the Monastery of Alcobaça.   

Editions

 

Partial editions:

Códice alcobacense 266 (witness 1):

Cornu, Jules (1882), "Anciens textes portugais (Vie de sainte Euphrosyne, Vie de sainte Marie Egyptienne, fragments pieux)", Romania 11, 357-365.

Dias, Epiphanio (1903-05), "Notas críticas a textos portugueses. I. 'Vida de Santa Euphrosina', 'Vida de Santa Maria Egypcia'", Revista Lusitana 8, 179-183.

Castro, Ivo et alii (1984-85), "Vidas de santos de um manuscrito alcobacense (II): Vida de Eufrosina, Vida de Santa Maria Egipcíaca", Revista Lusitana. Nova Série 5, 56-71.

 

Códice alcobacense 270 (witness 2):

Nunes, J. J. (1917), "Textos antigos portugueses VII. [Vida de Santa Maria Egipcia]", Revista Lusitana 20, 184-203.

 

Other editions:

Corpus Informatizado do Português Medieval: Vidas de Santos de um Manuscrito Alcobacense - Séc. XIII/XIV, VS7

Olsen, B. Munk (1984), "La 'Vida de Santa Pelágia': une traduction portugaise médiévale et son modèle latin". In Pélagie la pénitente: métamorphoses d'une legende. Paris: Études Augustiniennes, 2, 243-277.

Sobral, Cristina Maria Matias (1991), Santa Maria Egipcíaca em Alcobaça: edição crítica das versões medievais portuguesas da lenda de Maria Egipcíaca. Tese de mestrado. Lisboa: Colibri.

Studies

Online database:

Philobiblon:

Testemunho 1: Texid 1087; Manid 1143; CNum 1071

Testemunho 2: Texid 1087; Manid 1141; CNum 1111

 

References:

CAMBRAIA, César Nardelli (2005), Introdução à Crítica Textual. São Paulo: Martins Fontes.

CAMBRAIA, César Nardelli (2007), Tradução em língua portuguesa do “Livro de Isaac”. Caligrama 12, 171-203.

CAMBRAIA, César Nardelli (2001), “Cinco breves tratados religiosos alcobacenses: edição semidiplomática (cód. alc. 461)”. Caligrama 6, 7-28.

CANDOLO-CÂMARA, Teresa (2008), Desejo de Deus e lágrimas - uma chave de leitura monástica para textos de espiritualidade medievais. In Tessituras, Interações, Convergências. XI Congresso internacional da ABRALIC, 13 a 17 de julho de 2008. São Paulo: USP. In http://www.abralic.org.br/anais/cong2008/AnaisOnline/simposios/pdf/044/TERESA_CANDOLO.pdf

CEPEDA, Isabel Vilares (1995), Bibliografia da Prosa Medieval em Língua Portuguesa. Lisboa: Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro, 220-222.

COSTA, Sara Figueiredo (2003), "A construção dos tempos do ‘passado' em alguns textos do século XV - Sete Vidas de Santos do Códice Alcobacense 266", Actas do XVIII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística, 267-273.

FACCON, M. (1994), "Los manuscritos de la Vida de Santa María Egipciaca en la Península Ibérica: tres traducciones del siglo XIV y sus fuentes posibles". Tese. Padova: Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia.

FACCON, M. (1998), "Due traduzioni iberiche della Vida de Santa María Egipciaca. Fonti possibli", Revista de Literatura Medieval 10, 83-99.

FACCON, M. (1999), "Una Vyda de Sancta Maria Egipcia e do Sancto Homem Zozimas alcobacense: apuntes sobre un manuscrito y su edición caídos en el olvido". In Parrilla García et al., Edición y anotación de textos. Actas del I Congreso de Jóvenes Filólogos. A Coruña: Universidade da Coruña, 1, 229-240.

JÚDICE, N. (1989), "Maria Egipcíaca". In Godinho, Helder (ed.) Em Torno da Idade Média. Lisboa: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 173-183.

MACHADO, A. M. (2006), "A Representação do Pecado na Hagiografia Medieval: heranças ou uma Espiritualidade Eremítica". Tese de Doutoramento. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra - Faculdade de Letras.

MACHADO, A. M. S. (1988), "Tradição, movência e exemplaridade na 'Vida de Santa Maria Egipcíaca': Subsídios para o estudo da Hagiografia Medieval Portuguesa". Tese. Coimbra: Faculdade de Letras - Universidade de Coimbra.

MACHADO, Diogo Barbosa de (1741), “Bibliotheca lusitana historica, critica, e cronologica. Na qual se comprehende a noticia dos authores portuguezes, e das obras, que compuseraõ desde o tempo da promulgação da Ley da Graça até o tempo prezente”. Lisboa occidental: Officina de Antonio Isidoro da Fonseca, vol. I.

MACHADO, Diogo Barbosa de (1741), “Bibliotheca lusitana historica, critica, e cronologica. Na qual se comprehende a noticia dos authores portuguezes, e das obras, que compuseraõ desde o tempo da promulgação da Ley da Graça até o tempo prezente”. Lisboa occidental: Officina de Antonio Isidoro da Fonseca, vol. III.

MARTINS, Ana Maria (1986), "Aspectos da pontuação num manuscrito medieval português". In Critique et Édition de Textes. Actes du XVIIe Congrès International de Linguistique et Philologie Romanes 9. Aix-en-Provence: Université de Provence, 255-266

RADERMACHER, C. J. E. (1889), Lautlehre zweier alportugiesischen Heiligenleber (Euphrosyna und Maria aegyptiaca). Bonn: Universitäts-Buchdruckerei von Carl Georgi.

SNOW (1990), "Notes on the Fourteenth-Century Spanish Translation of Paul the Deacon's 'Vita Sanctae Mariae Aegyptiacae, Meretricis'". In Conolly, J. E. et al. (dir.) Saints and their Authors: Studies in Medieval Hispanic Hagiography in Honor of John K. Walsh. Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, 83-96

SOBRAL (2007), "Hagiografia em Portugal: Balanço e Perspectivas", Medievalista Online 3.

SOBRAL, C. M. M. (1993), "A imagem da sabedoria na Lenda de Maria Egipcíaca". In Revista da Faculdade de Letras. Quinta Série, nº 15, 133-142.

SOBRAL, Cristina M. M. (1993), "Vida de Santa Maria Egipcíaca". In Lanciani, Giulia e Tavani, Giuseppe (dir.), Dicionário da Literatura Medieval Galega e Portuguesa. Lisboa: Caminho, 672-674.

Notes

Há uma tradução do texto que aparentemente deriva não do texto latino, mas de uma cópia em vernáculo. Trata-se de um texto que integra um exemplar português da obra Flos Sanctorum que se encontra na Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal (Ho flos sanctõ[rum] em lingoaje[m] p[or]tugue[s]), com a cota RES. 157 A. Esta obra deriva do texto castelhano da Legenda Aurea de Jacobus de Voragine e regista a vida de Santa Maria Egipcíaca entre os fólios 56v e 57v. Trata-se de uma edição de 1513 feita em Lisboa que compila mais de duas centenas de textos. Esta obra é composta por perto de trezentos fólios (alguns estão desaparecidos e outros estão degradados) a duas colunas em papel e é encadernada em pergaminho. As folhas têm a dimensão de 263 x 200 mm e está escrita em gótica, possuindo iluminuras. Anteriormente, a obra pertenceu a Dom João de Melo Manuel da Câmara Medeiros, Conde da Silvã e Francisco de Melo Manuel da Câmara (Cabrinha).

There's a translation of the text that apparently derives not from the Latin text, but from a Portuguese copy. It is a text that is part of a Portuguese version of Flos Sanctorum (folios 73V-78V) that is in the National Library of Portugal (Ho flos sanctõ[rum] em lingoaje[m] p[or]tugue[s]), with the reference RES. 157.

This work comes from the Spanish version of Leyenda Aurea of Jacopo de Voragine and the life of St. Mary of Egypt is between the folios 56v and 57v. This book was printed in 1513 in Lisbon by Hermão de Campos, who compiles more than two hundred texts. It has about three hundred folios (some are missing and others are damaged) illuminated and written in Gothic on paper in two columns and is bound in parchment. The leaves have a size of 263 x 200 mm. Previously, the work belonged to Dom João de Melo Manuel da Câmara Medeiros, Conde da Silvã and Francisco de Melo Manuel da Câmara (Cabrinha).