Original works‎ > ‎

Visio Tungdali




Visio Tungdali

Visio Tnugdali

Visio Tundali

Name of the Portuguese translation


Visão de Túndalo (pt.016)


Marcus, a monk of Irish origin.


Latin or possibly Irish (León Acosta, 1993: 683; Pereira, 1895: 97).


Mystical text that belongs to the same genre of the ‘Divine Comedy’ (it is considered its closest antecedent). It describes the journey that the soul of the Irish knight Tundalus undertakes to Purgatory, Hell and Paradise, where he experiences the same joys and sufferings of the dead. After his vision, the knight becomes a Christian, distributes its goods to the poor and becomes a hermit (Leon Acosta, 1993: 683-684; García Sánchez, 2010: 355).

As reported by the prologue of the Latin text, this vision occurred in 1149 and shortly after was documented in text. According to Pereira (1895: 98), the text has a reference to St. Bernard that  seems to indicate that he would still be alive when Marcus wrote the story. As this saint died in 1153, the text was probably written between those two dates.

It is not certain whether the original text, that was very popular, was written in Latin or Irish. A century after it was written, Vincent of Beauvais included it in his book Speculum Historiale (book 28, chapters 88-104). Later, the text was translated in more than thirty languages, reaching up to now about 250 medieval manuscripts (Leon Acosta 1993: 683; Pereira, 1895).


Around the year 1149.


According to the prologue of the older versions, it was written in the city of Regensburg (Germany).

Extant witnesses

Among the 16 witnesses of the twelfth century, Mattia Cavagna (http://www.arlima.net/mp/marcus.html), highlights the following (they belong to group A of witnesses):


1.     München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Codices latini monacenses, 22254, f. 117r-138r

2.     Trier, Bistumsarchiv, Nr. 29, f. 13r-30v


From group B he highlights the following:


1.     Berlin, Staatsbibliothek und Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Ms. lat. oct. 100, f. 1v-67r

2.     Bruxelles, Bibliothèque royale de Belgique, 4526-4533 (1880), f. 108r-125v

3.     München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Codices latini monacenses, 18523b, f. 13v-29v (olim Tegernsee)

4.     Troyes, Bibliothèque municipale, 946, f. 50r-68v


In addition, there are at least one hundred and fifty Latin witnesses documented until the nineteenth century. See Wagner, 1882: IX-XIV; Palmer 1982: 5-10; Pereira, 1895: 99.

In Portugal there is a manuscript, Speculum Historiale (National Library of Portugal, códice Z-6-3), perhaps from the fifteenth century, which contains the Visio Tundali (book 28, chapters 88-104). See Pereira (1895: 99).


Online database:



and also

http://www.arlima.net/no/85, http://www.arlima.net/no/99, http://www.arlima.net/no/17,

http://www.arlima.net/no/358, http://www.arlima.net/no/93



GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ, Enrique (2010). Libros de viaje en la península ibérica durante la Edad Media: Bibliografía. Lemir 14, 353-402.

LEÓN ACOSTA, J. (1993). Visão de Túndalo. In: LANCIANI, Giulia; TAVANI, Giuseppe. Dicionário da literatura medieval galega e portuguesa. Lisboa: Caminho, 683-684.

MEARNS, Rodney (1985). The Vision of Tundale, ed. From B.L. MS Cotton Caligula A II. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

MUSSAFIA, A. (1871). Sulla vision di  Tundalo. Viena: Sitzungsberichte der Königlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische Klasse 57.

PALMER, Nigel (1982). Visio Tnugdali: The German and Dutch translations and their circulation in the Later Middle Ages. Munich: Artemis.

PEREIRA, F. M. Esteves (1895), Visão de Tundalo, Revista Lusitana 3, 97-120.

WAGNER, Albrecht (1882). Visio Tnugdali - Lateinisch und Altdeutsch. Erlangen. Verlag von Andreas Deichert.